Outcome of simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation a single center experience
George Kurian1, Paul Pazhampillil Joy1, Zachariah Paul1, Sandeep Sreedharan1, Anil Mathew 1, Rajesh R Nair1, Ramachandran N Menon2, Sudhindran N S2.
1Nephrology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Ernakulam, India; 2Gastro Intestinal Surgery, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Ernakulam, India
Introduction: Simultaneous simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation is one of the treatment options for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5. The SPKT outcomes are reported to be excellent with a 5 year patient, kidney and pancreas graft survival of 88%, 77% and 69% respectively. Here, we present data regarding outcome of the SPKT done at our institution.
Method: We studied patients who underwent SPKT in our institution. 11 T1DM patients who were CKD-5 underwent SPKT from 2014 to 2022. Their graft function and complications were analysed.
Results: A total of 12 patients were studied. 50 % were males and 50% were females. Mean age at diagnosis was 14 ± 4 years. Mean age at transplantation was 32 ± 6 years. Mean hemodialysis (HD) vintage was 22 ± 14 months. Mean age of donor was 31 ± 10 years. Induction was with Basiliximab in 1 patient, Alemtuzumab in 5 patients and ATG in 6 patients. Maintenance immunosuppression was tacrolimus and mycophenolate in 8 patients; and, tacrolimus, mycophenolate and everolimus in 2 patients Mean duration of hospital stay was 30 ± 18 days. Mean graft kidney function at 1 month was 1.38 ± 0.48 mg/dl. Mean graft kidney function at 6 months was 1.30 ± 0.47 mg/dl. At 1 year, one patient had severe renal graft dysfunction requiring HD. Among the other 10 patients who completed one year, mean kidney graft function at 1 year was 1.25 ± 0.23 mg/dl. Three (25%) patients had renal allograft loss with need for initiation of HD after 30, 21 and 6 months. Two patients with renal allograft loss required insulin after 19 and 25 months. Three (25%) patients had delayed graft function. Five (41.7%) patients had renal allograft rejection at 1 month. Among the five, three had another episode of rejection at 17, 11 and 4 months. Three (25%) patients had suspected pancreatic graft rejection at POD 13, 13 and 14, which resolved with intravenous steroids. Eight (66.6%) patients had infections in the first year following transplant which included urosepsis, LRTI, tuberculosis, varicella, CMV, cellulitis, periodontal abscess, dental caries and esophagial candidiasis. Seven (58.3%) had surgical complications including pseudo aneurysm of graft pancreas, urinoma, perinephric hematoma, abdominal bleed and DIC, jejujno-jejunal anastomotic site bleed, kinked renal vein requiring re-exploration, graft pancreas fat necrosis with impending GB rupture and peritonitis, and splenic vein thrombosis requiring re-exploration. Other complications noted were incisional hernia, subacute intestinal obstruction, bilateral femoral head avascular necrosis and acute myeloid leukemia.
Conclusion: The graft survival and outcomes in our institution is comparable to that of international standards. Surgical complications were noted to be higher compared to renal transplantation. SPK remains to be treatment of choice in T1DM patients with ESRD.
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