Impact of vaccination against Covid 19 in the population of intrathoracic transplant recipients during the pandemic
Ludmila Morcos1, Manuel Rodriguez1, Jose Miguel Picco1, Claudio Burgos1, Cinthya Riveros1.
1Guaymallen, Hospital Italiano de Mendoza, Mendoza, Argentina
Introduction: Towards the end of 2019, the SARS CoV-2 infection was reported in the Chinese city of Wuhan, which gave rise to the current pandemic. In the presence of an immunosuppressed patient, the clinical picture is undoubtedly variable, and therapeutic and preventive tools take an important role. The objective is to present the experience in patients with intrathoracic transplant.
Methods: Observational, retrospective study in orthotopic, single-lung, double-lung, and cardiopulmonary heart transplant patients under follow-up at Hospital Italiano de Mendoza, Argentina, from August 2020 to February 2022, with a positive PCR diagnosis or symptomatic epidemiological link for COVID 19.
Results: A total of 37 patients were included, with a mean age of 58.2 years (16 to 76 years), 89% were orthotopic heart transplant recipients, 3% single-lung, 3% double-lung, and 3% heart-lung. During the first wave between March 2020 and November 2020, in the national context of mandatory quarantine, there were 8 infected with moderate-severe symptoms in 4 patients and a mortality of 37.5%. During the second wave (May 2021), vaccination began in immunosuppressed patients, in this context there were 13 infected, 62.5% with severe symptoms, with a mortality of 38.4%, 69% of vaccinated with at least one dose . At the beginning of 2022, with the advanced vaccination campaign, the cases in our country increased exponentially, 16 patients were infected. 100% were vaccinated. In this context, of the 8 who received 2 doses of the vaccine prior to contracting the disease, 3 had moderate-severe symptoms. Only 5 patients managed to complete the vaccination schedule with 3 doses, and no severe symptoms were observed in this subgroup. Finally, the mortality of the third wave was 12.5%.
Conclusion: In our population, we observed that as the pandemic progressed, the number of infections increased, but the appearance of immunization made a difference in terms of morbidity and mortality, surely also associated with the lower virulence of the strains that predominated in our country in each of the three COVID-19 waves.
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