Endovascular thrombectomy in a chronic upper cava syndrome due to long term home parenteral nutrition. New hope to extend life support
Camila A Cáceres1, Marcelo Dándolo1, Osvaldo Sánchez1, Jimena Alaniz1, Ricardo Trucco1, Mariana Ortega1, Héctor Solar1, Gabriel Gondolesi1, Oscar Gural Romero1.
1Hospital Universitario Fundación Favaloro, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Introduction: Chronic Intestinal Pseudo Obstruction(CIPO) refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by symptoms of intestinal obstruction, without evidence of mechanical lesion and is a cause of chronic intestinal failure. Loss of vascular accesses by thrombosis has become the current main indication for intestinal transplant.
Materials and Methods: A 28-year-old female patient with a history of myopathic CIPO received Home Parenteral Nutrition(HPN) for 25 years, developing central venous accesses thrombosis. As a consequence of a chronic upper cava syndrome with occlusion of the right jugular and subclavian-axillary vein, an invalidating headache and inability to maintain dorsal decubitus due to retroocular pain evolves overtime, but worsen with HPN infusion, limiting the volume and calories provided. A multidisciplinary case discussion concluded that although chronic, an endovascular thrombectomy should be attempted to improve quality of life and to satisfy nutritional needs.
Results: A vascular computer tomography(CT) scan with 3D reconstruction and a digital venography were performed showing complete occlusion of the right jugular, axillary and subclavian(where a picc-line was placed as last access) veins and a partial occlusion of the proximal superior vena cava(SVC) and occlusion of the right iliac vein. An angioplasty trough the right humeral, axillary, innominate trunk axis and superior vena cava using 6 & 9mm balloons was performed. Balloon dilatation of multiple venous strictures was done, followed by placement of two stents, one into the right subclavian vein and SVC, and the other into left subclavian vein, with restitution of venous blood flow. Anticoagulation with Rivaroxaban and Clopidrogel was started. On the 5th postoperative day a new onset of acute pain, paresthesia were reported, followed by edema in the right upper limb. A Doppler ultrasound was positive for an acute thrombosis, confirmed by CT scan. A new phlebography and mechanical thrombectomy using the ASPIREX device followed by a new angioplasty of a partial distal stenosis was done. A new stent implantation into humeral, axillary, and subclavian veins was performed. Outcome was favorable with complete resolution of the symptoms; being discharged on day 6. The patient currently is asymptomatic, receiving HPN without complications.
Conclusion: This case is an example of the management of deep venous thrombosis secondary to the chronic use of HPN. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach is mandatory due to its complexity, requiring to be performed by trained and expert interventionists, to successfully provide new alternatives to extend the possibility for their life support or avoid contraindications to transplant. Peripheral venous hemodynamic is not a common procedure however, is the cornerstone to treat this complication achieving in many cases the recovery of venous blood flow delaying the need of intestinal transplantation.
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